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One of the initial audits that the DCAA performs is the Accounting Systems Review. An accounting manual that documents the policies and procedures of the contractor is also required.
The DCAA may audit your Purchasing System. QuickBooks has a good purchasing module that can handle any purchases, not just inventory.
Each approved vendor or subcontract purchase should be entered as a Purchase Order against specific contracts.
The accounting department would then process vendor invoices against approved purchase orders. You must track all government property separately.
Government property is defined as any piece of equipment that is charged as a direct cost on a government contract. The QuickBooks fixed asset module is recommended to separately track all assets purchased under a government contract, as all as indirect assets to automate the depreciation calculations for book and tax purposes.
You should take your existing QuickBooks file and simply add a new profit and loss account structure. You can then inactivate your old structure while retaining historical data.
As soon as you have won the government contract, you will need to start accumulating costs under the new structure.
It is much easier to have the system reconfigured and in use before you win the contract. To support project accounting, the master file will now be a list of billable contracts.
We recommend that you use the customer for the billing level of the contract. For example, you may have 10 contracts with the Air Force, and each contract will be a customer record.
However, many companies track indirect costs by projects especially labor costs to allow greater visibility and management of indirect activities.
Payroll items are an important link between the timesheet system and the QuickBooks system. The payroll item determines what general ledger account the timesheets and labor distribution will be posted to.
Payroll classes are often used for Labor Classifications, such as Engineer, Research Analyst, etc. They can also be used to assign employees to internal departments.
Service items are used to automate billing and to determine what revenue general ledger account the invoices are posted to. You can set up unique service items that assign billing rates to individuals and jobs.
Because in QuickBooks the payroll process is what distributes labor dollars to projects, based on timesheet hours, the payroll function should be separate from your main QuickBooks file.
The payroll file will house all your payroll deductions and direct deposit information. The main QuickBooks file will handle labor distribution, project accounting, and general ledger accounting.
QuickBooks has an extensive collection of project reports. You can download reports into Microsoft Excel and email them to project managers on a weekly basis.
QuickBooks can easily automate Time and Material, and Fixed Price invoices. You can also create custom templates and email invoices to customers.
If you have non-accounting staff entering information into QuickBooks, it is a wise decision to upgrade to their enterprise level of software.
QuickBooks Enterprise supports 25 concurrent users, as opposed to the Premiere version which only accommodates five users.
There are also more user security options in Enterprise. Even if you are a small company, the upgrade can be worth it for the increase in performance and security.
There are numerous add-ons for QuickBooks, and an equal number of software solutions that claim to surpass it in ability. However, QuickBooks will usually prove flexible enough to meet the task at hand, especially when integrated with strategic timekeeping software that will unlock the full potential of QuickBooks as a DCAA-compliant system.
It is possible to waste a good deal of money and time trying to refine a system that is perfectly good. Sarah Glass is the President and CEO of AimSourcing, a group of highly skilled accounting, finance, and information systems professionals, with over 25 years experience implementing business systems and managing large-scale administrative operations for international companies.
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Journyx helps customers automate payroll, billing and cost accounting for compliance with DCAA and other government regulations. Founded in , Journyx has been providing time management solutions to government contractors for nearly 15 years.
The basic characteristics of the contracts are as follows: Fixed Price: As the name suggests, these contracts provide a fixed price that will be paid to the contractor regardless of the costs associated with the completion of the project.
In very specific, appropriate cases, this price may be adjusted, but in general, what you see is what you get.
Cost Reimbursable: In cost reimbursable contracts, the government agency will provide for the payment of allowable costs, up to a prescribed amount specified in the initial contract.
An initial estimate is provided to the government so that they can obligate and appropriate quantity of funds. Time and Materials: Time and materials contracts provide for the payment of direct labor paid at specified rates and materials paid at cost.
These contracts will always include a ceiling price for expenditures. Direct Versus Indirect Costs A significant portion of accounting for government contracts is the classification of costs, commercial and government, as either direct or indirect.
Consistency The government has no desire to pay for other commercial contract costs in addition to their own costs.
Project Accounting You must set up your system for Project Accounting, which QuickBooks provides for. Chart of Accounts You will need to revamp your Chart of Accounts.
Timekeeping and Labor Distribution Here is where specific DCAA approval is extremely important. To ensure accuracy, a listing of project numbers and their descriptions should be made in writing to the employee Record all hours worked, paid or unpaid Sign the timecard at the end of each work period and have the supervisor approve the time It is important, particularly when evaluating third-party timekeeping solutions, to make sure that all of these systems are in place, and preferably automated.
Accounting Manual One of the initial audits that the DCAA performs is the Accounting Systems Review.
Purchasing Systems The DCAA may audit your Purchasing System. Government Property You must track all government property separately. Changes to the Chart of Accounts You should take your existing QuickBooks file and simply add a new profit and loss account structure.
Payroll Classes and Service Items Payroll items are an important link between the timesheet system and the QuickBooks system.
However, there is a general lack of agreement about which items should be presented in profit or loss and in OCI. The interaction between profit or loss and OCI is unclear, especially the notion of reclassification and when or which OCI items should be reclassified.
A common misunderstanding is that the distinction is based upon realised versus unrealised gains. This lack of a consistent basis for determining how items should be presented has led to an inconsistent use of OCI in IFRS standards.
It may be difficult to deal with OCI on a conceptual level since the International Accounting Standards Board the Board are finding it difficult to find a sound conceptual basis.
However, there is urgent need for some guidance around this issue. Many users are thought to ignore OCI as the changes reported are not caused by the operating flows used for predictive purposes.
Examples would be the statement of cash flows and disclosures relating to operating segments. There are several arguments for and against reclassification.
If reclassification ceased, then there would be no need to define profit or loss, or any other total or subtotal in profit or loss, and any presentation decisions can be left to specific IFRS standards.
It is argued that reclassification protects the integrity of profit or loss and provides users with relevant information about a transaction that occurred in the period.
Additionally, it can improve comparability where IFRS standards permit similar items to be recognised in either profit or loss or OCI.
Those against reclassification argue that the recycled amounts add to the complexity of financial reporting, may lead to earnings management and the reclassification adjustments may not meet the definitions of income or expense in the period as the change in the asset or liability may have occurred in a previous period.
The original logic for OCI was that it kept income-relevant items that possessed low reliability from contaminating the earnings number.
Markets rely on profit or loss and it is widely used. Thus, profit or loss needs to contain all information relevant to investors.
Misuse of OCI would undermine the credibility of net income. The use of OCI as a temporary holding for cash flow hedging instruments and foreign currency translation is non-controversial.
However, other treatments such the policy of IFRS 9 to allow value changes in equity investments to go through OCI, are not accepted universally.
US GAAP will require value changes in all equity investments to go through profit or loss. Accounting for actuarial gains and losses on defined benefit schemes are presented through OCI and certain large US corporations have been hit hard with the losses incurred on these schemes.
The presentation of these items in OCI would have made no difference to the ultimate settled liability but if they had been presented in profit or loss, the problem may have been dealt with earlier.
An assumption that an unrealised loss has little effect on the business is an incorrect one. The Discussion Paper on the Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting considers three approaches to profit or loss and reclassification.
The first approach prohibits reclassification. The other approaches, the narrow and broad approaches, require or permit reclassification.
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